Youth And Greta Room

Greta Thunberg inserita sul carro allegorico "Home sweet home. Nessun posto è come casa" di Lebigre e Roger. CARNEVALE DI VIAREGGIO 2020. [Photo Cesare Goretti]

Abbiamo ripreso questa BIO di Greta Tintin Eleonora Ernman Thunberg da Wikypedia e la riportiamo integralmente.
Riteniamo che un messaggio come quello di GRETA debba essere ospitato in questo sito web dedicato alla Candidatura dell’ Italia ad Ospitare il Decimo Forum Mondiale dell’ Acqua nel 2024 in ragione del tema “ Climate Change” che è uno dei pilastri della nostra candidatura.

[ENGLISH VERSION]

Greta Tintin Eleonora Ernman Thunberg born 3 January 2003) is a Swedish environmental activist who is internationally known for challenging world leaders to take immediate action for climate change mitigation. Thunberg initially gained notice for her youth and her straightforward speaking manner, both in public and to political leaders and assemblies, in which she criticises world leaders for their failure to take what she considers sufficient action to address the climate crisis.

Thunberg’s activism began by persuading her parents to adopt lifestyle choices that reduced their own carbon footprint. In August 2018, at age 15, she started spending her school days outside the Swedish Parliament to call for stronger action on climate change by holding up a sign reading Skolstrejk för klimatet (School strike for climate). Soon other students engaged in similar protests in their own communities. Together they organised a school climate strike movement under the name Fridays for Future. After Thunberg addressed the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference, student strikes took place every week somewhere in the world. In 2019, there were multiple coordinated multi-city protests involving over a million students each. To avoid energy intensive flying, Thunberg sailed to North America where she attended the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit. Her speech there, in which she exclaimed “how dare you”, was widely taken up by the press and incorporated into music.

Her sudden rise to world fame has made her both a leader and a target for critics, especially due to her age. Her influence on the world stage has been described by The Guardian and other newspapers as the “Greta effect”. She received numerous honours and awards, including an honorary Fellowship of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, inclusion in Time’s 100 most influential people, being the youngest Time Person of the Year, inclusion in the Forbes list of The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women (2019), and three consecutive nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize (2019–2021).

Early life
Greta Thunberg was born on 3 January 2003, in Stockholm, Sweden, the daughter of opera singer Malena Ernman and actor Svante Thunberg. Her paternal grandfather was actor and director Olof Thunberg.
Thunberg says she first heard about climate change in 2011, when she was eight years old, and could not understand why so little was being done about it. The situation made her depressed and as a result, at the age of 11, she stopped talking and eating and lost ten kilograms (22 lb) in two months. Eventually, she was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and selective mutism. In one of her first speeches demanding climate action, Thunberg described the selective mutism aspect of her condition as meaning she “only speaks when necessary”.

Thunberg struggled with depression for three or four years before she began her school strike. When she started protesting, her parents did not support her activism. Her father said he does not like her missing school but said: “[We] respect that she wants to make a stand. She can either sit at home and be really unhappy, or protest, and be happy.” Her diagnosis of Asperger’s Syndrome was made public nationwide in Sweden by her mother in May 2015, in order to help other families in a similar situation. While acknowledging that her diagnosis “has limited me before”, Thunberg does not view her Asperger’s as an illness, and has instead called it her “superpower”.

For about two years, Thunberg challenged her parents to lower the family’s carbon footprint and overall impact on the environment by becoming vegan, upcycling, and giving up flying. She has said she tried showing them graphs and data, but when that did not work, she warned her family that they were stealing her future. Giving up flying in part meant her mother had to give up her international career as an opera singer. When interviewed in December, 2019 by the BBC, her father said: “To be honest, (her mother) didn’t do it to save the climate. She did it to save her child because she saw how much it meant to her, and then, when she did that, she saw how much (Greta) grew from that, how much energy she got from it.” Thunberg credits her parents’ eventual response and lifestyle changes with giving her hope and belief that she could make a difference. The family story is recounted in the 2018 book Scenes from the Heart.

Thunberg was a pupil at Franska Skolan, a private school in central Stockholm, from 2010 to 2018, after which she transferred to Kringlaskolan, a school in Södertälje. In 2019 it was announced that she had completed the 9th grade (which is the completion of the lower secondary education) with excellent grades, garnering 14 A-grades and 3 B-grades. According to an article in Bloomberg magazine, these B-grades are reportedly in Swedish, home economics and physical education.

Activism
Strike at the Riksdag
In August 2018, Thunberg began the school climate strikes and public speeches for which she has become an internationally recognized climate activist. In an interview with Amy Goodman from Democracy Now!, she said she first got the idea of a climate strike after school shootings in the United States in February 2018 led to several youths refusing to go back to school. These teen activists at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, went on to organize the March for Our Lives in support of greater gun control. In May 2018, Thunberg won a climate change essay competition held by Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet. In part, she wrote “I want to feel safe. How can I feel safe when I know we are in the greatest crisis in human history?”

After the paper published her article, she was contacted by Bo Thorén from Fossil Free Dalsland, a group interested in doing something about climate change. Thunberg attended a few of their meetings. At one of them, Thorén suggested that school children could strike for climate change. Thunberg tried to persuade other young people to get involved but “no one was really interested”, so eventually she decided to go ahead with the strike by herself.

On 20 August 2018, Thunberg, who had just started ninth grade, decided not to attend school until the 2018 Swedish general election on 9 September; her protest began after the heat waves and wildfires during Sweden’s hottest summer in at least 262 years. Her demands were that the Swedish government reduce carbon emissions in accordance with the Paris Agreement, and she protested by sitting outside the Riksdag every day for three weeks during school hours with the sign Skolstrejk för klimatet (school strike for climate).

Thunberg said her teachers were divided in their views about her missing class to make her point. She says: “As people, they think what I am doing is good, but as teachers, they say I should stop.”

Social media activism
Thunberg posted a photo of her first strike day on Instagram and Twitter, with other social media accounts quickly taking up her cause. High-profile youth activists amplified her Instagram post, and on the second day she was joined by other activists. A representative of the Finnish bank Nordea quoted one of Thunberg’s tweets to more than 200,000 followers. Thunberg’s social media profile attracted local reporters whose stories earned international coverage in little more than a week.

One Swedish climate-focused social media company was We Don’t Have Time (WDHT), founded by Ingmar Rentzhog. He said her strike only began attracting public attention after he turned up with a freelance photographer and posted Thunberg’s photograph on his Facebook page and Instagram account, and a video in English that he posted on the company’s YouTube channel. Rentzhog subsequently asked Thunberg to become an unpaid youth advisor to WDHT. He then used her name and image without her knowledge or permission to raise millions for a WDHT for-profit subsidiary, We Don’t Have Time AB, of which Rentzhog is the chief executive officer. Thunberg received no money from the company and terminated her volunteer advisor role with WDHT once she realized they were making money from her name.

After October 2018, Thunberg’s activism evolved from solitary protesting to taking part in demonstrations throughout Europe; making several high-profile public speeches, and mobilizing her growing number of followers on social media platforms. After the December 2018 general elections, Thunberg continued to strike only on Fridays. She inspired school students across the globe to take part in student strikes. That month, more than 20,000 students had held strikes in at least 270 cities.

Thunberg spoke out against the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate) 2020 and Joint Entrance Examination 2020 entrance exams, which are being conducted in India in September. She said that it is unfair for students to appear for exams in the middle of a global pandemic. She also said that the students of India have been deeply impacted by the floods that hit states such as Bihar and Assam, which cause mass destruction for the citizens.

On 3 February 2021, Thunberg tweeted in support of the ongoing 2020–2021 Indian farmers’ protest. Effigies of Thunberg were burned in Delhi by nationalists who were against the farmer protests; activists were also critical about international interference in India’s internal matters. Greta Thunberg’s tweet received criticism from the Indian Government, which said that it was an internal matter. In her initial tweet Thunberg linked to a document which provided a campaigning toolkit for those who wanted to support the farmers’ protest. This toolkit contained advice on hashtags and how to sign petitions but also included suggested actions beyond those directly linked to the farmer’s protest. She soon deleted the tweet, saying the document was “outdated” and linked to an alternative one “to enable anyone unfamiliar with the ongoing farmers protests in India to better understand the situation and make decisions on how to support the farmers based on their own analysis”. The 22-year-old Indian climate activist who edited the toolkit, Disha Ravi, was arrested under the charges of sedition and criminal conspiracy on 16 February.

Protests and speeches in Europe
Her speech during the plenary session of the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24) went viral. She commented that the world leaders present were “not mature enough to tell it like it is”. In the first half of 2019, she joined various student protests around Europe, and was invited to speak at various forums and parliaments. At the January 2019 World Economic Forum, Thunberg gave a speech in which she declared: “Our house is on fire.” She addressed the British, European and French parliaments, where in the latter case several right-wing politicians boycotted her. In a short meeting with Thunberg, Pope Francis thanked her and encouraged her to continue. By March 2019, Thunberg was still staging her regular protests outside the Swedish parliament every Friday, where other students occasionally joined her. According to her father, her activism has not interfered with her schoolwork, but she has had less spare time. She finished lower secondary school with good grades. In July 2019, Time magazine reported Thunberg was taking a “sabbatical year” from school, intending to travel in the Americas while meeting people from the climate movement.

Sabbatical year
In August 2019, Thunberg sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Plymouth, England, to New York, USA, in the 60-foot (18 m) racing yacht Malizia II, equipped with solar panels and underwater turbines. The trip was announced as a carbon-neutral transatlantic crossing serving as a demonstration of Thunberg’s declared beliefs of the importance of reducing emissions.

France 24 reported that several crew would fly to New York to sail the yacht back to Europe. The voyage lasted fifteen days, from 14 to 28 August 2019. Thunberg was invited to give testimony in the US House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis on 18 September. Instead of giving testimony, she gave an eight sentence statement and submitted the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C as evidence.

UN Climate Action Summit
On 23 September, Thunberg attended the UN Climate Action Summit in New York City. That day the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) hosted a press conference where Thunberg joined fifteen other children including Ayakha Melithafa, Alexandria Villaseñor, Catarina Lorenzo, Carl Smith and others.

Together, the group announced they had made an official complaint against five nations that are not on track to meet the emission reduction targets they committed to in their Paris Agreement pledges: Argentina, Brazil, France, Germany, and Turkey. The complaint challenges these countries under the Third Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Protocol is a quasi-judicial mechanism which allows children or their representatives, who believe their rights have been violated, to bring a complaint before the relevant ‘treaty body’, the Committee on the Rights of the Child. If the complaint is successful, the countries will be asked to respond, but any suggestions are not legally binding.

[ITALIAN VERSION]

Greta (Stoccolma, 3 gennaio 2003) è un’attivista svedese per lo sviluppo sostenibile e contro il cambiamento climatico. È nota per le sue manifestazioni regolari tenute davanti al Riksdag a Stoccolma, in Svezia, con lo slogan Skolstrejk för klimatet («Sciopero scolastico per il clima»).
Greta Thunberg è figlia della cantante d’opera Malena Ernman e dell’attore Svante Thunberg. Quando aveva 13 anni le fu diagnosticata la sindrome di Asperger. Anche a causa della sua notorietà, molta attenzione è stata data ai sintomi da lei manifestati e legati a questa sindrome: disturbo ossessivo-compulsivo, mutismo selettivo e il disturbo da deficit di attenzione/iperattività. Molto spesso queste informazioni vengono utilizzate per screditarla o per confutare le sue idee ambientaliste. Lei stessa ha parlato della sua condizione in alcune interviste.
Per diminuire l’impronta ecologica della sua famiglia ha insistito perché i suoi congiunti diventassero vegani, come lo è diventata lei. È autrice, insieme alla sua famiglia, del libro La nostra casa è in fiamme, in cui viene raccontata la sua vita con alcuni aneddoti della sua famiglia; solo in piccola parte vi si trovano riferimenti al suo impegno per la difesa dell’ambiente.

Attivismo
Il 20 agosto 2018 Greta Thunberg, che frequentava il nono anno di una scuola di Stoccolma, ha deciso di non andare a scuola fino alle elezioni legislative del 9 settembre 2018. La decisione di questo gesto è nata a fronte delle eccezionali ondate di calore e degli incendi boschivi senza precedenti che hanno colpito il suo paese durante l’estate. Voleva che il governo svedese riducesse le emissioni di anidride carbonica come previsto dall’accordo di Parigi sul cambiamento climatico ed è rimasta seduta davanti al parlamento svedese ogni giorno durante l’orario scolastico. Il suo slogan era Skolstrejk för klimatet (Sciopero della scuola per il clima).

A seguito delle elezioni, ha continuato a manifestare ogni venerdì, lanciando così il movimento studentesco internazionale Fridays for Future. Ha partecipato alla manifestazione Rise for Climate davanti al Parlamento Europeo a Bruxelles e ha parlato alla manifestazione organizzata da Extinction Rebellion a Londra (31 ottobre 2018). Il suo sciopero del venerdì ha attirato l’attenzione dei media in diverse nazioni e manifestazioni simili sono state organizzate in altri paesi, tra cui i Paesi Bassi, l’Italia, la Germania, la Finlandia, la Danimarca e l’Australia. In Australia migliaia di studenti sono stati ispirati da Thunberg ad intraprendere lo sciopero del venerdì, ignorando l’appello del loro primo ministro Scott Morrison, che ha dichiarato al Parlamento «ciò che vogliamo è l’apprendimento nelle scuole e meno attivismo».

Il 4 dicembre 2018 Greta ha parlato alla COP24, vertice delle Nazioni Unite sui cambiamenti climatici tenutosi a Katowice, in Polonia. Greta ha spiegato così la gravità del problema:

«Ciò che speriamo di ottenere da questa conferenza è di comprendere che siamo di fronte a una minaccia esistenziale. Questa è la crisi più grave che l’umanità abbia mai subito. Noi dobbiamo anzitutto prenderne coscienza e fare qualcosa il più in fretta possibile per fermare le emissioni e cercare di salvare il salvabile.»

In occasione dell’ultima giornata ufficiale di lavori, il 14 dicembre, ha dichiarato dalla tribuna della COP24, parlando ai leader mondiali riuniti con parole durissime:

«Voi parlate soltanto di un’eterna crescita dell’economia verde poiché avete troppa paura di essere impopolari. Voi parlate soltanto di proseguire con le stesse cattive idee che ci hanno condotto a questo casino, anche quando l’unica cosa sensata da fare sarebbe tirare il freno d’emergenza. Non siete abbastanza maturi da dire le cose come stanno. Lasciate persino questo fardello a noi bambini. […] La biosfera è sacrificata perché alcuni possano vivere in maniera lussuosa. La sofferenza di molte persone paga il lusso di pochi. Se è impossibile trovare soluzioni all’interno di questo sistema, allora dobbiamo cambiare sistema. […] L’anno 2078 celebrerò i miei 75 anni, se avrò figli, forse passeranno quella giornata con me. Forse mi chiederanno di voi, forse mi chiederanno perché voi non abbiate fatto nulla, mentre c’era ancora il tempo per agire. Voi dite di amare i vostri figli sopra qualsiasi altra cosa, eppure state rubando il loro futuro proprio davanti ai loro stessi occhi. […] Non siamo venuti qui per supplicare i leader di agire. Ci avete ignorato in passato, e ci ignorerete ancora. […] Voi avete finito le scuse, e noi stiamo finendo il tempo. […] Il vero potere appartiene al popolo.»

Il 25 gennaio 2019 è intervenuta con un discorso molto duro al Forum economico mondiale di Davos, volto a far comprendere il panico che si dovrebbe provare di fronte ai cambiamenti climatici.
Nei mesi successivi Greta Thunberg è intervenuta in altre manifestazioni in diverse città europee, alcune delle quali hanno avuto una certa attenzione mediatica, come quella a Bruxelles del 21 febbraio o quella di Amburgo del 1º marzo.

Il 15 marzo 2019 si è tenuto lo sciopero mondiale per il futuro, al quale hanno partecipato moltissimi studenti in 1700 città in oltre 100 paesi del mondo (un milione solo in Italia); Greta Thunberg è intervenuta nella manifestazione organizzata a Stoccolma, ricordando come sia necessario che i politici agiscano, dando ascolto ai moniti degli scienziati sul clima. Tra le risposte alla manifestazione c’è stata quella della Commissione europea, che ha affermato di ascoltare la richiesta dei giovani e di stare agendo in quella direzione.
Il 16 aprile 2019 ha parlato alla commissione Ambiente del Parlamento europeo, invitando i politici europei a prendere decisioni nette e rapide per contrastare il cambiamento climatico, seguendo quanto affermato dagli scienziati; in particolare, guardando alle imminenti elezioni europee, ha invitato i giovani ad andare alle urne e i politici ad ascoltare l’appello per il clima di tanti ragazzi che non potranno votare. Il giorno dopo ha partecipato all’udienza generale di Papa Francesco in piazza San Pietro a Roma, a seguito della quale ha avuto un breve scambio di battute con il pontefice.
Tra il 14 e il 28 agosto 2019 ha attraversato l’oceano Atlantico da Plymouth a New York (dove è stata accolta da attivisti locali come Alexandria Villaseñor e Xiye Bastida) a bordo dello yacht a vela Malizia II, provvisto di pannelli solari e turbine subacquee. Il viaggio è stato annunciato come una traversata atlantica carbon neutral, per dimostrare l’importanza della riduzione delle emissioni sostenuta da Thunberg. Scopo del viaggio è stata la partecipazione al Vertice delle Nazioni Unite sull’azione per il clima di New York e alla conferenza sul cambiamento climatico COP 25 a Santiago del Cile. In particolare il 20 settembre ha guidato a New York lo sciopero mondiale per il clima, mentre il giorno successivo ha parlato al Palazzo di Vetro al Vertice dei giovani per il clima. Il 23 settembre ha parlato all’apertura del Climate Action Summit a margine dell’Assemblea generale delle Nazioni Unite, cui partecipavano diverse decine di capi di stato e di governo, usando parole assai dure contro la loro inazione:

«È tutto sbagliato. Non dovrei essere quassù. Dovrei essere tornata a scuola dall’altra parte dell’oceano. Eppure, voi tutti venite da noi giovani per la speranza. Come osate? Voi avete rubato i miei sogni e la mia infanzia, con le vostre parole vuote! Eppure io sono una delle fortunate. La gente soffre. La gente muore. Interi ecosistemi stanno collassando. Siamo all’inizio di una estinzione di massa, e tutto ciò di cui potete discutere sono i soldi, e le favole di una eterna crescita economica! Come osate? Da oltre 30 anni la scienza è stata chiara, cristallina: come osate continuare a guardare da un’altra parte? […] Voi ci state deludendo. Ma i giovani hanno cominciato a capire il vostro tradimento. Gli occhi di tutte le future generazioni sono su di voi e, se sceglierete di tradirci, vi dico che non vi perdoneremo mai. Non vi lasceremo andare così. Proprio qui, proprio ora, tracciamo il confine. Il cambiamento sta arrivando, che vi piaccia o no.»